Biology 259


Next offered: Fall 2010

The vertebrates are a group with a 550 million year history, represented on earth today by some 60,000 species. Vertebrates walk, swim, fly, and inhabit almost every type of habitat on the planet. They feed on everything --plants, microorganisms, invertebrates, and each other. Vertebrates range in size from a fish 7 mm long, to a whale 35 m long. Vertebrates include fishes, frogs, cats, turtles, snakes, birds, crocodiles --and us. This course examines the anatomy of vertebrates: where it came from, and how it allows them to do what they do.


(above: Squalus acanthius --your companion for the semester!)

By the end of the course students should have gained

Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory per week.
Prerequisites: Biology 111, 112

Syllabus Fall 2008

cat thorax


(above) A placoderm, extinct representative of the first group of vertebrates to have jaws. This one was a formidable predator 400 million years ago.. Several metres long, it was covered in bony armor plates, but had an internal skeleton made of cartilage.

(above) Dissection of the circulatory system of the anterior part of a cat. (from Kardong and Zalisko, 2006)

class 2007  

(above) Bio 259 class, fall 2007

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