Simultaneous quantum state measurements using array detection
M. Beck, Physical Review Letters, 84, 5748-5751 (2000)
I propose a method for measuring the quantum state of an optical field that occupies a mode having a complicated spatial structure. The technique uses array detectors and a single, plane-wave local oscillator beam. The advantage of using array detectors is that the local oscillator is not mode matched to the field being measured, yet the deleterious effects of this mismatch on the effective detection efficiency are greatly reduced compared to using single detectors. Indeed, when the spatial mode of the signal field is describable by a real function, the effective mode-matching efficiency is unity.