Professor of Biology
Carl E. Peterson Endowed Chair of Sciences
Biology Dept., Whitman College, Walla Walla WA 99362 USA
ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY, MARINE BIOLOGY, BIOETHICS,
[HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY]
Click here for
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES and ORGANIC
Click for a full list of Prof. Yancey's experiences and publications
- B.S. (with honors) in Biology from the California
Institute of Technology; undergraduate research on DNA-RNA hybridization with Drs. Eric Davidson, Barbara Hough-Evans, Roy Britten.
- Ph.D. in Marine Biology from the Scripps
Institution of Oceanography (U.C. San Diego), specializing in marine animal
physiology and biochemistry, especially thermal, pH and osmotic adaptations, with Dr. George Somero.
- Postdoctoral work on thermal, exercise and osmotic adaptations in salmon, sharks and goldfish at
the University of St. Andrews (Scotland) and the Plymouth Marine
Laboratory, England, with Dr. Ian Johnston.
- Professor at Whitman College since 1981. Carl E. Peterson Endowed Chair of Sciences since 1992.
- Visiting Researcher during summers and sabbaticals at the Oregon
State U. Hatfield Marine Science Center; the National Institutes of
(Bethesda) [kidney osmotic research]; the Mt.
Desert Island Biological Laboratory (Maine); Stanford's Hopkins
Marine Station (Pacfic Grove, CA); Louisiana State U.; the U. Otago (New Zealand),
Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology and U. Hawai'i Manoa, MBARI
Bay Aquarium Research Inst.), U. St. Andrews and U. Aberdeen, and NIWA, Wellington New Zealand.
- Deep-sea Expeditions: many on the Wecoma, Thompson, Pt. Sur,
- Talks given in many U.S. states, and in Canada, England, Scotland, Belgium,
Switzerland, Japan, New Zealand, Botswana and Brazil
on marine and medical research; students have given research presentations at many meetings in the U.S. and in Russia, France, Australia, Iceland, and New Zealand.
Prof. Yancey's hobbies include photography,
woodworking, stained glass, hiking, gardening.
OSMOLYTES in: Corals under Stress; European Eels and Salmon; Sports Drinks;
Deep Sea and Pressure Adaptations --HADES - NSF grant
In the submersible Alvin
(2006); with a deep-sea cuskeel (2009); on the SEA
Semester sailing ship at Moorea, French Polynesia (2013)
TEACHING: Prof. Yancey's courses and other
teaching activities are listed below, and can be accessed by clicking
the blue links:
sites on adaptations:
*Dr. Yancey is a
co-author of a 2005 (1st ed.) and 2013
(2nd ed.) TEXTBOOK: ANIMAL
Sherwood, Klandorf, Yancey (Cengage)
to top of page
RESEARCH: Prof. Yancey's research is described
below, with additional information found by clicking the blue topics:
Most of the research in Prof. Yancey's laboratory focuses on Organic
Osmolytes. Osmolytes are compounds that cells may accumulate when they are under dehydrating osmotic stress. Such
stresses include high salinity (as in seawater, or in the interior of
the mammalian kidney), high evaporation (as in deserts), freezing,
dietary imbalances, and diseases (e.g., osmotic stresses caused by
diabetes mellitus). Organic osmolytes are certain compounds which can
be built up in cells to elevate osmotic pressure and which, unlike salt
ions, do not disrupt cellular macromolecules. In addition to regulating
cellular water balance, many osmolytes have cytoprotective properties such as stabilizing cellular proteins against denaturing chemicals like urea, temperature, and pressure.
IN THE NEWS:
2012 HADES news Science; Science News
2012 Cover Story: Trieste flatfish, Biol. Bulletin
2012 Giant trench amphipod story
2010 hagfish slime story in J. Exp. Biol.
Scientist on TMAO & pressure
top of page
1) DEEP-SEA animals and PRESSURE: Osmolyte roles in animals in depth/pressure adaptation
--NSF international HADES Program: 2011-2015
RECENT and CURRENT OSMOLYTE RESEARCH:
--with Tim Shank
, WHOI, Jeff Drazen, U. Hawai'i (co-PIs);
international collaborators: Alan Jamieson
, U. Aberdeen; Ashley Rowden
, NIWA NZ; and several others including Doug Bartlett
of Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. and James Cameron's DEEPSEA CHALLENGE
--See NEWS stories
and Science News
2) CORAL Osmolytes and Stress Factors
--A) CRYOPRESERVATION of coral larvae and adults for
re-seeding decimated reef areas (with Mary Hagedorn, Smithsonian Institution/U. Hawai'i)
--B) SALINITY/pH adaptations of corals in ojos de agua near Yucatan's Mesoamerican Reef [pics here]: collaboration with Adina Paytan, Elizabeth Derse (UCSC) and Mario Rebolledo-Vieyra, Laura Hernandez (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan)
3) BRAIN CELLS and BETAINE [osmolyte]:
--Protective properties in exercise-related stress? with Leena Knight (Whitman); Stuart Craig, Kirsti Tiihonen (Danisco/DuPont)
4) Anguilla EELS and SALMON Osmolytes
--with Gordon Cramb, University of St. Andrews UK
5) Hydrothermal-Vent & Cold-Seep animals
Roles of Hypotaurine/Thiotaurine [Osmolyte derivatives]; with Ray Lee, Washington State U.; Peter
Girguis, Harvard U.)
6) Hagfish Slime: Osmolytes' role in swelling? with Doug Fudge, Julia Herr (U. Guelph); news story
LEFT: Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO)
[add O or an SH to the S-group to
form taurine or thiotaurine,
Yancey and others have found that some osmolytes, especially
methylamine types such as TMAO (left), can actually stabilize proteins and counteract destabilizing effects of
perturbants such as urea, salt, temperature and pressure. TMAO has a breakdown product, TMA
(trimethylamine), that makes marine animals smell "fishy." Methylamines
are high and appear to protect proteins in
i) sharks and relatives, which also have
the perturbing compound urea as an osmolyte;
ii) mammalian (including human) kidneys, which must concentrate urea
as a perturbing waste;
iii) deep-sea animals which must cope with protein
disturbances from high pressure. Our discovery of TMAO's role
in the deep sea was featured in a New
story in 1999 and in a 2012 cover story of Science News. See Deep-sea
Fish page for pictures and Deep-Sea
Research page for research details.
--Stabilizing properties of osmolytes may have practical
e.g., Welch and colleagues have shown that TMAO and other osmolytes can
prevent the damaging protein of "mad-cow" disease from forming, and can
cause the malformed protein of cystic fibrosis to fold properly. (Dr. Yancey
assisted in one of the latter studies; see Howard
reference below in Research Area 2.)
--We are also studying the role of osmolyte-type solutes
in animals at hydrothermal vents and gas seeps, which have high levels of
hydrogen sulfide, a gas toxic to most animals. A major osmolyte in
shallow-water marine invertebrates such as clams and crabs is taurine. Taurine is also essential for
mammalian brain development, and is the primary ingredient in many
so-called energy or sports drinks (hint: the name taurine is derived
from Taurus [bull]). Researchers in France have found high levels of
the taurine derivatives hypotaurine and
in clams, mussels and tubeworms which have sulfide-oxidizing bacterial
symbionts. Thiotaurine, a product of hypotaurine and sulfide, may be a
mechanism to prevent sulfide toxicity. We have found hypotaurine and
thiotaurine in vent snails, limpets and heat-loving paralvinellid worms
without symbionts, and shown that thiotaurine levels vary with sulfide
exposure in these animals kept in laboratory pressure chambers. See Seeps and Vents page for
pictures and Deep-Sea
Research Page for research details.
--Other researchers have found that the common osmolyte
of marine algae, DMSP(dimethylsulfonoproprionate),
breaks down into the gas DMS (dimethylsulfide), which is
largely responsible for the "smell of the sea" that evokes emotional
responses to the ocean. DMS is also thought to trigger the seeding of
clouds, in what may be a global temperature negative feedback process.
This is one of the postulates of the so-called Gaia hypothesis, which suggests
that global warming will cause more DMS production, which via cloud
formation may cool the planet.
We have recently been
working on DMSP and other osmolytes in coral animals and
their symbionts, with Dr. Mary Hagedorn,
who is hoping to cryopreserve coral larvae for potential re-seeding of
decimated reef habitats.
I. REVIEW and COMMENTARY ARTICLES
A. REVIEW ARTICLES on osmotic balance and cytoprotection using osmolytes (RED
= recommended reading
for overview on osmolytes) [Primary
research articles are below]:
B. COMMENTARY ARTICLES
P.H., M.E. Clark, S.C. Hand, R.D. Bowlus, G.N. Somero (1982). Living with water stress: evolution of
osmolyte systems. Science 217: 1214-1222 (An
I.S.I. Citation Classic--see Yancey 1993 under B. COMMENTARY Articles below)
- Somero, G.N., P.H. Yancey (1978).
Evolutionary adaptations of Km and kcat values: fitting the enzyme to
its environment through modifications in the amino acid sequences and
changes in the solute environment of the cytosol. Symp. Biol.
- Yancey, P.H. (1985). Organic osmotic
effectors in cartilaginous fishes. IN: Transport Processes,
Iono- and Osmoregulation (R. Gilles, M. Gilles-Ballien,
- Yancey, P.H. (1994). Compatible and
counteracting solutes. In: Cellular and Molecular Physiology
of Cell Volume Regulation, Strange, K. (ed.), CRC Press, Boca
- Somero, G.N., P.H. Yancey (1997).
Osmolytes and cell volume regulation: physiological and evolutionary
principles. In: Handbook of Physiology, Sec. 14; Hoffman, J. F. and J.D.
Jamieson (eds)., Oxford University Press.
- Yancey, P.H. (2001). Water stress,
osmolytes and proteins. Amer.
- Yancey, P.H. (2001). Nitrogenous
solutes as osmolytes. Fish Physiology Vol. 20: Nitrogen
(P.Wright, P. Anderson, eds). Academic Press, pp 309-341.
- Yancey, P.H., W. R. Blake*, J.
Conley*, R.H. Kelly* (2002). Nitrogenous solutes as protein-stabilizing
osmolytes: counteracting the destabilizing effects of hydrostatic
pressure in deep-sea fish. In: Nitrogen
Excretion in Fish (Proc. Internatl. Congr. Biol.
Fish), Wright, P.A. and D. MacKinlay (eds.).
- Yancey, P.H. (2003). Proteins and
counteracting osmolytes. Biologist 50: 126-131
- Yancey, P.H. (2004). Compatible and
counteracting solutes: protecting cells from the Dead Sea to the deep
Science Progress 87: 1-24
P.H. (2005). Organic
osmolytes as compatible, metabolic, and counteracting cytoprotectants
in high osmolarity and other stresses. J.Exp. Biol. 208: 2819-2830
C.S., P.H. Yancey (1989). Dual-career couples and science:
opportunities, challenges and strategies. Oceanography 2: 28-31; PDF here
C.S., P.H. Yancey (1992). Dual-career couples and academic science.
J. Coll. Sci. Teach. 21: 217-222; PDF here
P.H. (1993). Micromolecules
that help macromolecules in dehydration [commentary written for I.S.I.
Citation Classic recognition]. Curr. Contents Life Sci; PDF here
- Sandquist, J., L. Romberg, P. Yancey (2013 in press). Life as a professor at a small liberal arts college. Mol. Biol. Cell
II. MARINE / COMPARATIVE
PHYSIOLOGY: ADAPTATIONS to SALINITY,
A. SHALLOW OCEANS: SHARKS and relatives, BONY
FISH, and CORALS; plus FROGS (*undergraduate
(For DEEP-SEA animals, see next section below)
P.H., G.N. Somero (1978). Urea-requiring lactate dehydrogenases of
marine elasmobranch fishes. J. Comp. Physiol. 125:
P.H., G.N. Somero (1979). Counteraction of urea destabilization of
protein structure by methylamine osmoregulatory compounds of
elasmobranch fishes. Biochem. J. 182: 317-323
P.H., G.N. Somero (1980). Methylamine osmoregulatory compounds in
elasmobranch fishes reverse urea inhibition of enzymes. J.
Exp. Zool. 212: 205-213
J.D., P.H. Yancey, I.A. Johnston (1982). The effects of osmoregulatory
solutes on tension generation by dogfish skinned muscle fibres.
J. Exp. Zool. 96: 443-445
J.J., J.L. Harper, J.P. Leader, P.H. Yancey, R.A.J. Smith (1998).
Tissue composition of the elephant fish, Callorhynchus
milli: Betaine is the principal counteracting osmolyte. Comp.
Biochem. Physiol. 119B: 521-526 (see picture at
P.H., J. Ruble*, J.D. Valentich (1991). Effect of chloride
secretagogues on cyclic AMP formation in cultured shark (Squalus
acanthias) rectal gland epithelial cells. Bull. Mt.
Des. I. Biol. Lab.13: 51-52
C.J., P.V. Attwood, P.C. Withers, P.H. Yancey, J. Baldwin, M. Guppy
(1997). Effects of urea on M4-lactate dehydrogenase from elasmobranchs
and urea-accumulating Australian desert frogs. Comp.
S.L., P.H. Yancey, P.A. Wright (2004). Dogmas and controversies in the
handling of nitrogenous wastes: Osmoregulation during early embryonic
development in the marine little skate Raja erinacea; response to
changes in external salinity. J.
S.L., P.H. Yancey, P.A. Wright (2005). Evidence for an extra-hepatic
ornithine-urea cycle and osmoregulatory strategies in response to low
salinity in the little skate, Raja erinacea. Physiol.
Biochem. Zool. 78: 216-226
J.C., A. Kunkel-Patterson*, L. Mathias*, L.G. Riley, P.H. Yancey, T.
Hirano, E.G. Grau (2007). Effect of environmental salinity and
temperature on osmoregulatory ability, organic osmolytes, and plasma
hormone profiles in the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis
mossambicus). Comp. Physiol. Biochem. 146A: 252-264
M., V.L. Carter, S. Ly*, R.A. Andrell*, P.H. Yancey, J.A. Leong, F.W.
Kleinhans (2010). Analysis of internal osmolality in developing coral larvae, Fungia
scutaria. Phys. Biochem. Zool. 83: 157-166
- Yancey, P.H., M. Heppenstall*, S. Ly*, R.M. Andrell*, R.D. Gates, V.L. Carter, M. Hagedorn (2010). Betaines and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) as major osmolytes in Cnidaria with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. Phys.
Biochem. Zool. 83: 167-173
Kalujnaia, S., S. Gellatly, N. Hazon, A. Villaseñor*, P.H. Yancey and G. Cramb (2013). Tissue distribution of inositol monophosphatase (IMPA) isoforms in two euryhaline teleosts, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and the Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus); the effects of SW-acclimation on isoform expression and inositol production. Amer. J. Physiol. In press; Epub June 5
Elephant fish, New
Skate egg case
whose larvae we are
trying to cryopreserve in
Mary Hagedorn's lab at U. Hawaii
B. DEEP-SEA ANIMALS -- PRESSURE; HYDROTHERMAL VENTS and COLD SEEPS (*undergraduate
J.F., P.H. Yancey (1984). The protein composition of white skeletal
muscle from mesopelagic fishes having different water and protein
contents. Mar. Biol. 78: 129-137
P.H., R. Lawrence-Berrey*, M. D. Douglas* (1989). Adaptations in
mesopelagic fishes. I. Buoyant glycosaminoglycan layers in species
without diel vertical migrations. Mar. Biol. 103:
P.H., T. Kulongoski*, M.D. Usibelli*, R. Lawrence-Berrey*, A. Pedersen*
(1992). Adaptations in mesopelagic fishes. II. Protein contents of
various muscles and actomyosin contents and structure of swimming
muscle. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 103B: 691-697
M.B., J.R. Suko*, F.O. Santoso*, P.H. Yancey (1997). Elevated levels of
trimethylamine oxide in muscles of deep-sea gadiform teleosts: a
high-pressure adaptation? J.
279:386-391 (see picture at right of
R.H., P.H. Yancey (1999). High contents of trimethylamine oxide
correlating with depth in deep-sea teleost fishes, skates, and decapod
P.H., J.F. Siebenaller (1999). Trimethylamine oxide stabilizes teleost
and mammalian lactate dehydrogenases against inactivation by
hydrostatic pressure and trypsinolysis. J.
Exper. Biol. 202:3597-3603;
story: Dec. 11 '99 New Scientist (p.22)
M., H.R. Palmer, A.L. Fyfe-Johnson*, J.J. Bedford, R.A. Smith, P.H.
Yancey (2000). Hypotaurine, N-methyltaurine, taurine, and glycine
betaine as dominant osmolytes of vestimentiferan tubeworms from
hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Physiol.
P.H., A.L. Fyfe-Johnson*, R.H. Kelly*, V.P. Walker*, M.T. Aunon*
(2001). Trimethylamine oxide counteracts effects of hydrostatic
pressure on proteins of deep-sea teleosts. J.
P.H., W. R. Blake*, J. Conley* (2002). Unusual organic osmolytes in
deep-sea animals: adaptations to hydrostatic pressure and other
Biochem. Physiol. A,
133 (3): 667-676 (click on vol. 133)
J., H.A. Hudson*, J.R. Hom*, C. Kato, P.H. Yancey (2002).
Phosphodiester amine, taurine and derivatives, and other osmolytes in
vesicomyid bivalves from cold seeps: correlations with depth and
symbiont metabolism. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 43:
P.H., M.D. Rhea*, D. Bailey, K. Kemp (2004). Trimethylamine oxide,
betaine and other osmolytes in deep-sea animals: depth trends and
effects on enzymes under hydrostatic pressure. Cell Molec. Biol.
N.K., R.W. Lee, P.H. Yancey (2006). High contents of hypotaurine and
thiotaurine in hydrothermal-vent gastropods without thiotrophic
Exp. Zool. 305A: 655-662.
A.L., J.C. Drazen, G.L. Brand*, B.A. Seibel, P.H. Yancey (2007).
Contents of trimethylamine oxide correlate with depth within as well as
among species of teleost fish: an analysis of causation. Phys.
- Brand*, G.L., R.V. Horak*,
N. LeBris, S.K. Goffredi, S.L. Carney, B. Govenar, P.H. Yancey (2007).
Hypotaurine and thiotaurine as indicators of sulfide exposure in
bivalves and vestimentiferans from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Mar. Ecol. 28: 208-218.
- Yancey, P.H., J. Ishikawa*,
B. Meyer*, P. Girguis, R. Lee (2009). Hypotaurine and thiotaurine in
polychaetes without endosymbionts from hydrothermal vents: correlation
with sulfide exposure. J. Exp. Zool. 311A:439-447.
- Herr, J.E., T.M. Winegard, M.J. O'Donnell, P.H. Yancey, and D.S. Fudge (2010). Stabilization and swelling of hagfish slime mucin vesicles. J. Exp. Biol 213: 1092-1099; news story here
- Laxson*, C., N. E. Condon, J. C. Drazen, and P.H. Yancey (2011). Decreasing urea:methylamine ratios with depth in Chondrichthyes: A physiological depth limit? Physio. Biochem. Zool.84:494-505 online pre-publication
- Jamieson, A., P.H.Yancey (2012). On the validity of the Trieste flatfish: dispelling the myth. Biol. Bull 222:171-175
Giant rattail or
Oregon slope, 2000m
A hydrothermal vent with tubeworms
C. OTHER: RNA in DEVELOPMENT; TOXICOLOGY; TEMPERATURE adaptations; MUSCLE physiology (*undergraduate
- Hough, B.R., P.H. Yancey*, E.H. Davidson (1973). Persistence of maternal RNA in Engystomops embryos. J. Exp. Zool. 185: 357-368
- Somero, G.N., T.J. Chow, P.H.
Yancey, C.B. Snyder (1977). Lead accumulation rates in tissues of the
estuarine teleost Gillichthys mirabilis: salinity and temperature
effects. Arch. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 6: 337-346
- Somero, G.N., P.H. Yancey, T.J.
Chow, C.B. Snyder (1977). Lead effects on tissue and whole organism
respiration of the estuarine teleost Gillichthys mirabilis. Arch.
Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 6: 346-354
- Yancey, P.H., G.N. Somero (1978).
Temperature dependence of intracellular pH: its role in the
conservation of pyruvate apparent Km values of vertebrate lactate
dehydrogenases. J. Comp. Physiol. 125: 129-134
- Altringham, J.D., I.A. Johnston,
P.H. Yancey (1980). A sensitive positional feedback transducer for
investigating the force-velocity relationship of actomyosin threads. J. Physiol. 9/12: 17P-18P
- Yancey, P.H., I.A. Johnston (1982).
Effect of electrical stimulation and exercise on the phosphorylation
state of myosin light chains from fish skeletal muscle. Pflugers
- Altringham, J.D., P.H. Yancey, I.A.
Johnston (1980). Limitations in the use of actomyosin threads as model
contractile systems. Nature 287: 338-340
- Yancey, P.H., J.F. Siebenaller
(1987). Coenzyme binding ability of homologs of M4-lactate
dehydrogenase in temperature adaptation. Biochim.
Biophys. Acta 924: 483-491
to Research Index ; Back
to top of page
|III. MAMMALIAN/MEDICAL RESEARCH: KIDNEY and BRAIN OSMOLYTES (undergraduate co-authors*):
- Yancey, P.H. (1988). Osmotic
effectors in kidneys of xeric and mesic rodents: cortico-medullary
distributions and changes with water availability. J.
- Wolff, S., P.H. Yancey, T.S.
Stanton, R. Balaban (1989). A simple HPLC method for quantitating the
major organic solutes of the renal medulla. Amer.
- Yancey, P.H., M.B. Burg (1989).
Distributions of major organic osmolytes in rabbit kidneys in diuresis
and antidiuresis. Amer.
- Yancey, P.H., M.B. Burg, S.M.
Bagnasco (1990). Effects of NaCl, glucose and aldose reductase
inhibitors on cloning efficiency of renal cells. Amer.
- Yancey, P.H., M.B. Burg (1990).
Counteracting effects of urea and betaine on colony-forming efficiency
of mammalian cells in culture. Amer.
- Yancey, P.H., R.G. Haner*, T.
Freudenberger* (1990). Effects of an aldose reductase inhibitor on
osmotic effectors in rat renal medulla. Amer.
- Edmands*, S., P.H. Yancey (1992).
Effects on rat renal osmolytes of extended treatment with an aldose
reductase inhibitor. Comp.
- Peterson*, D.P., K M. Murphy*, R.
Ursino*, K. Streeter*, P.H. Yancey (1992). Effects of dietary protein
and salt on rat renal osmolytes: co-variation in urea and GPC contents.
- Edmands*, S.D., K.S. Hughs*, S.
Lee*, S.D. Meyer*, E. Saari, P.H. Yancey (1995). Time-dependent aspects
of osmolyte changes in rat kidney, urine, blood and lens with sorbinil
and galactose feeding. Kidney
- Trachtman, H., P.H. Yancey, S.R.
Gullans (1995). Cerebral cell volume regulation during hypernatremia in
developing rats. Brain
- Rohr*, J.M., S. Truong*, T. Hong*,
P.H. Yancey (1999). Effects of ascorbic acid, aminoguanidine, sorbinil
and zopolrestat on sorbitol and betaine contents in cultured rat renal
Biol. Online 4:3
- Miller*, T., R. Hanson*, P.H. Yancey
(2000). Developmental changes in organic osmolytes in prenatal and
postnatal rat tissues. Comp.
125A:45-56 (click on vol. 125).
- Bedford,, J.J., J. Schofield, P.H.
Yancey, J.P. Leader (2002). The effects of hypoosmotic infusion on the
composition of renal tissue of the Australian brush-tailed possum
Trichosurus vulpecula. Comp.
132B: 645-652 (click on vol. 132).
- Howard, M., H. Fischer, J. Roux, B.
C. Santos, S.R. Gullans, P. H. Yancey, W. J. Welch (2003). Mammalian
osmolytes and S-nitrosoglutathione promote delta-F508 Cystic Fibrosis
Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein maturation and
Biol. Chem. 278: 35159 - 35167
- Stein, C.S., P.H. Yancey, I. Martins, R.D. Sigmund, J.B. Stokes, B.L. Davidson (2010). Osmoregulation of CLN3 in the renal medulla. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 298: C1388-C1400
Normal kidney cells
in tissue culture
Kidney cells in
culture exposed to 1mM Ibuprofen
cystic-fibrosis channel function
with osmolytes (Howard et al., 2003)
Back to Research Index ; Back
to top of page; GO TO Whitman Biology Home