Carl E. Peterson Endowed Chair of Sciences Emeritus Professor of Biology; Senior Research Scientist
Biology Dept., Whitman College, Walla Walla WA 99362 USA
Curriculum Vitae

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VIDEO online about our research: NHK Documentary
DEEP OCEAN Pt 3 narrated by Sir Attenborough

BIOGRAPHY: Click here for Curriculum Vitae

Prof. Yancey's hobbies include photography, woodworking, stained glass, hiking.

Current/Recent Research--ORGANIC OSMOLYTES:
1. DEEP-SEA FISHES, Invertebrates: High Pressure Adaptation with Osmolytes: See HADES - NSF grant and documentaries below
2. MIGRATORY FISH: Salmon, eels, sticklebacks; 6-gill sharks, Arctic skates
3. MAMMALIAN BRAIN CELLS: Dehydration, sports drinks & osmolytes

NEWS: 2019-22: *Five Deeps Expedition to S. Sandwich Trench/ Southern Ocean
2022 Documentary on Discovery+ Channel
2018: *Gel tissue in deep-sea fish including a robotic snailfish
*BBC's Blue Planet 2, Episode 2
*NHK Documentary DEEP OCEAN Pt 3 narrated by Sir David Attenborough
2014: *Deepest fish found, Mariana Trench
2014: *A biochemical depth limit for fishes?

In the submersible Alvin (2006); on S. Georgia Island during Five Deeps Southern Ocean expedition (2019);
with a supergiant amphipod from the Mariana Trench (2014)

TEACHING (Semi-Retired) & ONLINE RESOURCES: Prof. Yancey, for 35 years, taught many courses--especially PHYSIOLOGY*, MARINE BIOLOGY and BIOETHICS. He has now retired from full-time teaching, but taught  Physiology in fall 2021 and will teach Marine Ecology in Fall 2022; and may continue to have research students for their research thesis requirement.. He will also continue to maintain educational websites. See links below for student research and those sites:

BIOL 310/310L

*Dr. Yancey is a co-author of a 2005 (1st ed.) and 2013 (2nd ed.) TEXTBOOK:

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY, by Sherwood, Klandorf, Yancey (Cengage)

Marine Biology/Ecology


Educational Website


Educational Website at



My Deep-Sea Biology website reformatted at
Marine Education Society of Australia


Interview of me at The Reef Tank


African & Australian Animal
Adaptations Website

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RESEARCH: Prof. Yancey's research is described below, with additional information found by clicking the blue topics:

Most of the research in Prof. Yancey's laboratory focuses on Organic Osmolytes: compounds that cells accumulate under dehydrating osmotic stress. Such stresses include high salinity (as in seawater, or in the interior of mammalian kidneys), evaporation (as in deserts), freezing, dietary imbalances, and diseases (e.g., high glucose in diabetes mellitus). Organic osmolytes can be built up in cells to reduce osmotic water loss; and, unlike salt ions, they do not disrupt cellular macromolecules. Moreover, many osmolytes have cytoprotective properties such as stabilizing proteins against denaturing agents like urea, temperature, and pressure in the deep sea.

More information can also be found by at Prof. Yancey's SENIOR RESEARCH page.


mackenzie suprg..anna superG.trap chloe me


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1. DEEP-SEA FISHES, AMPHIPODS down to the Mariana Trench: High Pressure Adaptations: See HADES - NSF grant and
NHK Documentary DEEP OCEAN Pt 3 narrated by Sir David Attenborough

2. MUSSELS: Intertidal stresses and osmolytes
3. MIGRATORY FISH: Salmon, European eels, sticklebacks; 6-gill sharks and Arctic skates
4. MAMMALIAN BRAIN CELLS: Dehydration & sports drinks with osmolytes

Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO)

[add O or an SH to the S-group to
form taurine or thiotaurine, respectively]

Prof. Yancey and others have found that some osmolytes, especially methylamine types such as TMAO (left), can actually stabilize proteins and counteract destabilizing effects of perturbants such as urea, salt, temperature and pressure. TMAO has a breakdown product, TMA (trimethylamine), that makes marine animals smell "fishy." Methylamines are high and appear to protect proteins in
i) sharks and relatives, which also have the perturbing compound urea as an osmolyte;
ii) mammalian (including human) kidneys, which must concentrate urea as a perturbing waste;
iii) deep-sea animals which must cope with protein disturbances from high pressure. Our discovery of TMAO's role in the deep sea was featured in a New Scientist news story in 1999 and in a 2012 cover story of Science News. See Deep-sea Fish page for pictures and Deep-Sea Research page for research details.

--Stabilizing properties of osmolytes may have practical applications, e.g., Welch and colleagues have shown that TMAO and other osmolytes can prevent the damaging protein of "mad-cow" disease from forming, and can cause the malformed protein of cystic fibrosis to fold properly. (Dr. Yancey assisted in one of the latter studies; see Howard et al. reference below in Research Area 2.)

--We are also studying the role of osmolyte-type solutes in animals at hydrothermal vents and gas seeps, which have high levels of hydrogen sulfide, a gas toxic to most animals. A major osmolyte in shallow-water marine invertebrates such as clams and crabs is taurine. Taurine is also essential for mammalian brain development, and is the primary ingredient in many so-called energy or sports drinks (hint: the name taurine is derived from Taurus [bull]). Researchers in France have found high levels of the taurine derivatives hypotaurine and thiotaurine in clams, mussels and tubeworms which have sulfide-oxidizing bacterial symbionts. Thiotaurine, a product of hypotaurine and sulfide, may be a mechanism to prevent sulfide toxicity. We have found hypotaurine and thiotaurine in vent snails, limpets and heat-loving paralvinellid worms without symbionts, and shown that thiotaurine levels vary with sulfide exposure in these animals kept in laboratory pressure chambers. See Seeps and Vents page for pictures and Deep-Sea Research Page for research details.

--Other researchers have found that the common osmolyte of marine algae, DMSP (dimethylsulfonoproprionate), breaks down into the gas DMS (dimethylsulfide), which is largely responsible for the "smell of the sea" that evokes emotional responses to the ocean. DMS is also thought to trigger the seeding of clouds, in what may be a global temperature negative feedback process. This is one of the postulates of the so-called Gaia hypothesis, which suggests that global warming will cause more DMS production, which via cloud formation may cool the planet.
-- We have recently been working on DMSP and other osmolytes in coral animals and their symbionts, with Dr. Mary Hagedorn,who is hoping to cryopreserve coral larvae for potential re-seeding of decimated reef habitats.

PUBLICATIONS: Click for a full list of Prof. Yancey's publications. Papers are listed below by theme/area


A. REVIEW ARTICLES on osmotic balance and cytoprotection using osmolytes (RED = recommended reading for overview on osmolytes)
[Primary research articles are below]:

  • Somero, G.N., P.H. Yancey (1978). Evolutionary adaptations of Km and kcat values: fitting the enzyme to its environment through modifications in the amino acid sequences and changes in the solute environment of the cytosol. Symp. Biol. Hungar. 21: 249-276.
  • Yancey, P.H., M.E. Clark, S.C. Hand, R.D. Bowlus, G.N. Somero (1982). Living with water stress: evolution of osmolyte systems. Science 217: 1214-1222 (An I.S.I. Citation Classic--see Yancey 1993 under B. COMMENTARY Articles below)
  • Yancey, P.H. (1985). Organic osmotic effectors in cartilaginous fishes. IN: Transport Processes, Iono- and Osmoregulation (R. Gilles, M. Gilles-Ballien, eds), Springer-Verlag
  • Yancey, P.H. (1994). Compatible and counteracting solutes. In: Cellular and Molecular Physiology of Cell Volume Regulation, Strange, K. (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • Somero, G.N., P.H. Yancey (1997). Osmolytes and cell volume regulation: physiological and evolutionary principles. In: Handbook of Physiology, Sec. 14; Hoffman, J. F. and J.D. Jamieson (eds)., Oxford University Press.
  • Yancey, P.H. (2001). Water stress, osmolytes and proteins. Amer. Zool 41: 699-709.
  • Yancey, P.H. (2001). Nitrogenous solutes as osmolytes. Fish Physiology Vol. 20: Nitrogen Excretion (P.Wright, P. Anderson, eds). Academic Press, pp 309-341.
  • Yancey, P.H., W. R. Blake*, J. Conley*, R.H. Kelly* (2002). Nitrogenous solutes as protein-stabilizing osmolytes: counteracting the destabilizing effects of hydrostatic pressure in deep-sea fish. In: Nitrogen Excretion in Fish (Proc. Internatl. Congr. Biol. Fish); Wright, P.A. and D. MacKinlay (eds.)
  • Yancey, P.H. (2003). Proteins and counteracting osmolytes. Biologist 50: 126-131
  • Yancey, P.H. (2004). Compatible and counteracting solutes: protecting cells from the Dead Sea to the deep sea. Science Progress 87: 1-24
  • Yancey, P.H. (2005). Organic osmolytes as compatible, metabolic, and counteracting cytoprotectants in high osmolarity and other stresses. J. Exp. Biol. 208: 2819-2830
  • Yancey, P.H, J.F. Siebenaller (2015). Co-evolution of proteins and solutions: protein adaptation versus cytoprotective micromolecules and their roles in marine organisms. J. Exp. Biol. 218: 1880-1896
  • Yancey, P.H (2015). Organic osmolytes in elasmobranchs. IN: Fish Physiology (R.E. Shadwick, A.P. Farrell, C.J. Brauner, Eds), Vol. 34B, Academic Press
  • Mills S., Leduc D., Drazen J. C., Yancey P., Jamieson A. J., Clark M. R., Rowden A. A., Mayor D. J., Piertney S., Heyl T., Bartlett D., Bourque J., Cho W., Demopoulos A., Fryer P., Gerringer M., Grammatopoulou E., Herrera S., Ichino M., Lecroq B., Linley T. D., Meyer K., Nunnally C., Ruhl H., Wallace G., Young C. and Shank T. M. (2016). 10,000 m under the sea: an overview of the HADES expedition to Kermadec Trench. IN: Proceedings of Kermadec Discoveries and Connections (pp 36-38) (B. Golder & A. Connell, Eds.). The Pew Charitable Trusts
  • Yancey, P.H. (2020). Cellular responses in marine animals to hydrostatic pressure (2020). J. Exp. Zool., online at
  • Weiler, C.S., P.H. Yancey (1989). Dual-career couples and science: opportunities, challenges and strategies. Oceanography 2: 28-31; PDF here
  • Weiler, C.S., P.H. Yancey (1992). Dual-career couples and academic science.J. Coll. Sci. Teach. 21: 217-222; PDF here
  • Yancey, P.H. (1993). Micromolecules that help macromolecules in dehydration [commentary written for I.S.I. Citation Classic recognition]. Curr. Contents Life Sci; PDF here
  • Sandquist, J., L. Romberg, P. Yancey (2013). Life as a professor at a small liberal arts college. Mol. Biol. Cell 24: 3285-3291

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A. SHALLOW OCEANS: SHARKS and relatives, BONY FISH; CORALS; MUSSELS (*undergraduate co-authors):
(For DEEP-SEA animals, see B section below)

  • Somero, G.N., T.J. Chow, P.H. Yancey, C.B. Snyder (1977). Lead accumulation rates in tissues of the estuarine teleost Gillichthys mirabilis: salinity and temperature effects. Arch. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 6: 337-346
  • Somero, G.N., P.H. Yancey, T.J. Chow, C.B. Snyder (1977). Lead effects on tissue and whole organism respiration of the estuarine teleost Gillichthys mirabilis. Arch. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 6: 346-354
  • Yancey, P.H., G.N. Somero (1978). Urea-requiring lactate dehydrogenases of marine elasmobranch fishes. J. Comp. Physiol. 125: 135-141
  • Yancey, P.H., G.N. Somero (1978). Temperature dependence of intracellular pH: its role in the conservation of pyruvate apparent Km values of vertebrate lactate dehydrogenases. J. Comp. Physiol.125: 129-134
  • Yancey, P.H., G.N. Somero (1979). Counteraction of urea destabilization of protein structure by methylamine osmoregulatory compounds of elasmobranch fishes. Biochem. J. 182: 317-323
  • Yancey, P.H., G.N. Somero (1980). Methylamine osmoregulatory compounds in elasmobranch fishes reverse urea inhibition of enzymes. J. Exp. Zool. 212: 205-213
  • Altringham, J.D., P.H. Yancey, I.A. Johnston (1982). The effects of osmoregulatory solutes on tension generation by dogfish skinned muscle fibres. J. Exp. Zool. 96: 443-445
  • Yancey, P.H., I.A. Johnston (1982). Effect of electrical stimulation and exercise on the phosphorylation state of myosin light chains from fish skeletal muscle. Pflugers Archiv 393: 334-339
  • Yancey, P.H., J.F. Siebenaller (1987). Coenzyme binding ability of homologs of M4-lactate dehydrogenase in temperature adaptation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 483-491
  • Bedford, J.J., J.L. Harper, J.P. Leader, P.H. Yancey, R.A.J. Smith (1998). Tissue composition of the elephant fish, Callorhynchus milli: Betaine is the principal counteracting osmolyte. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 119B: 521-526 (see picture at right)
  • Yancey, P.H., J. Ruble*, J.D. Valentich (1991). Effect of chloride secretagogues on cyclic AMP formation in cultured shark (Squalus acanthias) rectal gland epithelial cells. Bull. Mt. Des. I. Biol. Lab.13: 51-52
  • Fuery, C.J., P.V. Attwood, P.C. Withers, P.H. Yancey, J. Baldwin, M. Guppy (1997). Effects of urea on M4-lactate dehydrogenase from elasmobranchs and urea-accumulating Australian desert frogs. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 143-150
  • Steele, S.L., P.H. Yancey, P.A. Wright (2004). Dogmas and controversies in the handling of nitrogenous wastes: Osmoregulation during early embryonic development in the marine little skate Raja erinacea; response to changes in external salinity. J. Exp. Biol. 207: 2021-2031
  • Steele, S.L., P.H. Yancey, P.A. Wright (2005). Evidence for an extra-hepatic ornithine-urea cycle and osmoregulatory strategies in response to low salinity in the little skate, Raja erinacea. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 78: 216-226
  • Fiess, J.C., A. Kunkel-Patterson*, L. Mathias*, L.G. Riley, P.H. Yancey, T. Hirano, E.G. Grau (2007). Effect of environmental salinity and temperature on osmoregulatory ability, organic osmolytes, and plasma hormone profiles in the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Comp. Physiol. Biochem. 146A: 252-264
  • Hagedorn, M., V.L. Carter, S. Ly*, R.A. Andrell*, P.H. Yancey, J.A. Leong, F.W. Kleinhans (2010). Analysis of internal osmolality in developing coral larvae, Fungia scutaria. Phys. Biochem. Zool. 83: 157-166
  • Yancey, P.H., M. Heppenstall*, S. Ly*, R.M. Andrell*, R.D. Gates, V.L. Carter, M. Hagedorn (2010). Betaines and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) as major osmolytes in Cnidaria with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. Phys. Biochem. Zool. 83: 167-173
  • Kalujnaia, S., S. Gellatly, N. Hazon, A. Villasenor*, P.H. Yancey and G. Cramb (2013). Tissue distribution of inositol monophosphatase (IMPA) isoforms in two euryhaline teleosts, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and the Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus); the effects of SW-acclimation on isoform expression and inositol production. Amer. J. Physiol. 305: R369-384.
  • Hagedorn, M., V. Carter, N. Zuchowicz, M. Phillips, C. Penfield, B. Shamenek, E.A. Vallen, F.W. Kleinhans, K. Peterson*, M. White*, P.H. Yancey (2015). A chemical attractant in the establishment of coral symbiosis: Trehalose. PLoS ONE Jan. 28.
  • Divino, J.N., M. Monette, S.D. McCormick, P.H. Yancey, K.G. Flannery*, M.A. Bell, F.A. von Hippel, and E.T. Schultz (2016). Osmoregulatory physiology and rapid evolution of salinity tolerance in a recently introduced lake population of Threespine Stickleback. Evol. Ecol. Res. 17: 179-201
  • Gleason, L.U., L.P. Miller, J. Winnikoff, G.N. Somero, P.H. Yancey, D. Bratz*, and W.W. Dowd. (2017). Thermal history and gape of individual Mytilus californianus correlate with oxidative damage and thermoprotective osmolytes. J. Exp. Biol. 220: 4292-4304. News feature:

Elephant fish, New Zealand
(see Bedford et al. 1988)

Skate egg case
(see Steele et al. 2004, 2005)

Fungia coral (see Yancey et al.
2010; Hagedorn et al. 2010, 2015)


  • Siebenaller, J.F., P.H. Yancey (1984). The protein composition of white skeletal muscle from mesopelagic fishes having different water and protein contents. Mar. Biol. 78: 129-137
  • Yancey, P.H., R. Lawrence-Berrey*, M. D. Douglas* (1989). Adaptations in mesopelagic fishes. I. Buoyant glycosaminoglycan layers in species without diel vertical migrations. Mar. Biol. 103: 453-459
  • Yancey, P.H., T. Kulongoski*, M.D. Usibelli*, R. Lawrence-Berrey*, A. Pedersen* (1992). Adaptations in mesopelagic fishes. II. Protein contents of various muscles and actomyosin contents and structure of swimming muscle. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 103B: 691-697
  • Gillett*, M.B., J.R. Suko*, F.O. Santoso*, P.H. Yancey (1997). Elevated levels of trimethylamine oxide in muscles of deep-sea gadiform teleosts: a high-pressure adaptation? J. Exp. Zool. 279:386-391 (see picture at right of gadiform fish)
  • Kelly*, R.H., P.H. Yancey (1999). High contents of trimethylamine oxide correlating with depth in deep-sea teleost fishes, skates, and decapod crustaceans. Biol. Bull. 196:18-25 ; PDF version here.
  • Yancey, P.H., J.F. Siebenaller (1999). Trimethylamine oxide stabilizes teleost and mammalian lactate dehydrogenases against inactivation by hydrostatic pressure and trypsinolysis. J. Exp. Biol. 202:3597-3603; news story: Dec. 11 '99 New Scientist (p.22)
  • Yin, M., H.R. Palmer, A.L. Fyfe-Johnson*, J.J. Bedford, R.A. Smith, P.H. Yancey (2000). Hypotaurine, N-methyltaurine, taurine, and glycine betaine as dominant osmolytes of vestimentiferan tubeworms from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 73:629.
  • Yancey, P.H., A.L. Fyfe-Johnson*, R.H. Kelly*, V.P. Walker*, M.T. Aunon* (2001). Trimethylamine oxide counteracts effects of hydrostatic pressure on proteins of deep-sea teleosts. J. Exp. Zool. 289:172
  • Yancey, P.H., W. R. Blake*, J. Conley* (2002). Unusual organic osmolytes in deep-sea animals: adaptations to hydrostatic pressure and other perturbants. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A, 133 (3): 667-676 (click on vol. 133)
  • Fiess*, J., H.A. Hudson*, J.R. Hom*, C. Kato, P.H. Yancey (2002). Phosphodiester amine, taurine and derivatives, and other osmolytes in vesicomyid bivalves from cold seeps: correlations with depth and symbiont metabolism. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 43: 337-340
  • Yancey, P.H., M.D. Rhea*, D. Bailey, K. Kemp (2004). Trimethylamine oxide, betaine and other osmolytes in deep-sea animals: depth trends and effects on enzymes under hydrostatic pressure. Cell Mol. Biol. 50: 371-376
  • Rosenberg*, N.K., R.W. Lee, P.H. Yancey (2006). High contents of hypotaurine and thiotaurine in hydrothermal-vent gastropods without thiotrophic endosymbionts. J. Exp. Zool. 305A: 655-662.
  • Samerotte*, A.L., J.C. Drazen, G.L. Brand*, B.A. Seibel, P.H. Yancey (2007). Contents of trimethylamine oxide correlate with depth within as well as among species of teleost fish: an analysis of causation. Phys. Zool. Biochem. 80: 197-208
  • Brand*, G.L., R.V. Horak*, N. LeBris, S.K. Goffredi, S.L. Carney, B. Govenar, P.H. Yancey (2007). Hypotaurine and thiotaurine as indicators of sulfide exposure in bivalves and vestimentiferans from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Mar. Ecol. 28: 208-218.
  • Yancey, P.H., J. Ishikawa*, B. Meyer*, P. Girguis, R. Lee (2009). Hypotaurine and thiotaurine in polychaetes without endosymbionts from hydrothermal vents: correlation with sulfide exposure. J. Exp. Zool. 311A: 439-447.
  • Herr, J.E., T.M. Winegard, M.J. O'Donnell, P.H. Yancey, and D.S. Fudge (2010). Stabilization and swelling of hagfish slime mucin vesicles. J. Exp. Biol. 213: 1092-1099; news story here
  • Laxson*, C., N. E. Condon, J. C. Drazen, and P.H. Yancey (2011). Decreasing urea:methylamine ratios with depth in Chondrichthyes: A physiological depth limit? Physio. Biochem. Zool.84:494-505 online pre-publication
  • Jamieson, A., P.H.Yancey (2012). On the validity of the Trieste flatfish: dispelling the myth. Biol. Bull 222:171-175
  • Yancey, P.H., M. Gerringer*, A.A. Rowden, J.C. Drazen, A. Jamieson (2014). Marine fish may be biochemically constrained from inhabiting the deepest ocean depths. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111: 4461-4465; see news story here
  • Ichino, M C., M.R Clark, J.C. Drazen, A. Jamieson, D.O.B. Jones, A.A. Rowden, T.M. Shank, P.H. Yancey and H.A. Ruhl (2015). The distribution of benthic biomass in hadal trenches: a modelling approach to investigate the effect of vertical and lateral organic matter transport to the seafloor. Deep-Sea Res. I. 100: 21-33.
  • Linley, T., M. Gerringer, P.H. Yancey, J.C. Drazen, C. Weinstock*, A. Jamieson (2016). Fishes of the hadal zone including new species, in situ observations and depth records of Liparidae. Deep-Sea Res. I, 114: 99-110.
  • Gerringer, M.E., Drazen, J.C., Yancey, P.H. (2017). Metabolic enzyme activities of abyssal and hadal fishes: pressure effects and a re-evaluation of depth-related changes. Deep-Sea Res. I 125: 135-146
  • Gerringer, M.E., Drazen, J.C., Summers, A.P., Linley, T.D., Jamieson, A.J., Yancey, P.H. (2017). Distribution, composition, and functions of gelatinous tissues in deep-sea fishes. Royal Soc. Open Sci. 4: 171063. Read Science News story here!
  • Yancey, P.H., B. Speers-Roesch, S. Atchinson, J.D. Reist, J.R. Treberg (2018). Osmolyte adjustments as a pressure adaptation in deep-sea chondrichthyan fishes: An intraspecific test in Arctic skates (Amblyraja hyperborea) along a depth gradient. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 91: 788-796.
  • Downing*, A.B., G.T. Wallace*, Paul H. Yancey (2018). Organic osmolytes of amphipods from littoral to hadal zones: Increases with depth in trimethylamine N-oxide, scyllo-inositol and other potential pressure counteractants. Deep-Sea Res. I 138: 1-10; Cover Story.
  • Welty*, C.J., M.L. Sousa*, F.M. Dunnivant, P.H. Yancey (2018). High density element concentrations in fish from bathyal to hadal zones of the Pacific Ocean. Heliyon 4: e00840
  • Larsen, M.E.; D.C. Abel; D.P. Crane; S. L. Parker, P.H. Yancey (2019). B.A. Keller; R.D. Grubbs. Unique osmoregulatory morphology in primitive sharks: an intermediate state between holocephalan and derived shark secretory morphology. J. Fish Biol, 95: 1331-1341
  • Jain, G., M. Starksen, K. Singh, C. Hoang, P. Yancey, C. McCord, D.S. Fudge (2019). High concentrations of trimethylamines in slime glands inhibit skein unraveling in Pacific hagfish. J. Exp. Biol. 222: 1-6. News story here.
  • Gerringer, M.E., P.H. Yancey, O.V. Tikhonova, N.E. Vavilov, V.G. Zgoda, D.R. Davydov (2020). Pressure tolerance of deep-sea enzymes can be evolved through increasing volume changes in protein transitions: A study with lactate dehydrogenases from abyssal and hadal fishes. The FEBS Journal: 5394-5410.
  • Swan, J.A., A.J. Jamieson, T.D. Linley, P.H. Yancey (2021). Worldwide distribution and depth limits of decapod crustaceans (Penaeoidea, Oplophoroidea) across the abyssal-hadal transition zone of eleven subduction trenches and five additional deep-sea features. J. Crustacean Biol. 41: ruaa102

Giant rattail or grenadier (gadiform); Oregon slope, 2000m
(see Gillett et al. 1997; Samerotte et al. 2007)
A hydrothermal vent with tubeworms (see Yin et al. 2000; Brand et al. 2007; Yancey et al. 2009)

  • Hough, B.R., P.H. Yancey*, E.H. Davidson (1973). Persistence of maternal RNA in Engystomops embryos. J. Exp. Zool. 185: 357-368
  • Altringham, J.D., I.A. Johnston, P.H. Yancey (1980). A sensitive positional feedback transducer for investigating the force-velocity relationship of actomyosin threads. J. Physiol. 9/12: 17P-18P
  • Altringham, J.D., P.H. Yancey, I.A. Johnston (1980). Limitations in the use of actomyosin threads as model contractile systems. Nature 287: 338-340 

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  • Yancey, P.H. (1988). Osmotic effectors in kidneys of xeric and mesic rodents: cortico-medullary distributions and changes with water availability. J. Comp. Physiol 158B: 369-380
  • Wolff, S., P.H. Yancey, T.S. Stanton, R. Balaban (1989). A simple HPLC method for quantitating the major organic solutes of the renal medulla. Amer. J. Physiol. 256: F954-956
  • Yancey, P.H., M.B. Burg (1989). Distributions of major organic osmolytes in rabbit kidneys in diuresis and antidiuresis. Amer. J. Physiol. 257: F602-607
  • Yancey, P.H., M.B. Burg, S.M. Bagnasco (1990). Effects of NaCl, glucose and aldose reductase inhibitors on cloning efficiency of renal cells. Amer. J. Physiol. 258: C156-163
  • Yancey, P.H., M.B. Burg (1990). Counteracting effects of urea and betaine on colony-forming efficiency of mammalian cells in culture. Amer. J. Physiol. 258: R198-204
  • Yancey, P.H., R.G. Haner*, T. Freudenberger* (1990). Effects of an aldose reductase inhibitor on osmotic effectors in rat renal medulla. Amer. J. Physiol. 259: F733-F738
  • Edmands*, S., P.H. Yancey (1992). Effects on rat renal osmolytes of extended treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 103C: 499-502
  • Peterson*, D.P., K M. Murphy*, R. Ursino*, K. Streeter*, P.H. Yancey (1992). Effects of dietary protein and salt on rat renal osmolytes: co-variation in urea and GPC contents. Amer. J. Physiol. 263: F594-F600.
  • Edmands*, S.D., K.S. Hughs*, S. Lee*, S.D. Meyer*, E. Saari, P.H. Yancey (1995). Time-dependent aspects of osmolyte changes in rat kidney, urine, blood and lens with sorbinil and galactose feeding. Kidney Int. 48: 344-353
  • Trachtman, H., P.H. Yancey, S.R. Gullans (1995). Cerebral cell volume regulation during hypernatremia in developing rats. Brain Res. 693: 155-62
  • Rohr*, J.M., S. Truong*, T. Hong*, P.H. Yancey (1999). Effects of ascorbic acid, aminoguanidine, sorbinil and zopolrestat on sorbitol and betaine contents in cultured rat renal cells. Exp. Biol. Online 4:3
  • Miller*, T., R. Hanson*, P.H. Yancey (2000). Developmental changes in organic osmolytes in prenatal and postnatal rat tissues. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.125A:45-56 (click on vol. 125).
  • Bedford,, J.J., J. Schofield, P.H. Yancey, J.P. Leader (2002). The effects of hypoosmotic infusion on the composition of renal tissue of the Australian brush-tailed possum Trichosurus vulpecula. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 645-652(click on vol. 132).
  • Howard, M., H. Fischer, J. Roux, B. C. Santos, S.R. Gullans, P. H. Yancey, W. J. Welch (2003). Mammalian osmolytes and S-nitrosoglutathione promote delta-F508 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein maturation and function. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 35159 - 35167
  • Stein, C.S., P.H. Yancey, I. Martins, R.D. Sigmund, J.B. Stokes, B.L. Davidson (2010). Osmoregulation of CLN3 in the renal medulla. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 298: C1388-C1400
  • Knight, L. S., Q. Piibe*, C. Perkins*, I. Lambie*, and P.H. Yancey (2017). Betaine in the brain: characterization of betaine uptake, its influence on other osmolytes and its potential role in neuroprotection from osmotic stress. Neurochem. Res. 12: 3490-3503.

Normal kidney cells growing
in tissue culture
ibuprofen cells
Kidney cells in culture exposed to 1mM Ibuprofen
cystic fibrosis treatment
Restoring cystic-fibrosis channel function
with osmolytes (see Howard et al., 2003)

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